Useful vocabulary for 8 bands in IELTS

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8 bands Vocabulary

This page contains some vocabulary that is useful for you to construct an 8 bands essay for your ielts writing task 2. 

Some Terms Related to Communication Explained

o Active listening. Process of analyzing and evaluating what another person is saying to understand the speaker’s feelings or the true meaning of the message.

o Audience. A group of individuals attending to a common media. They receive communication from the same source, but are not active participants and do not communicate with each other. Collection of individuals who have come together to watch or listen to someone or something, such as to listen to a speech.

o Brainstorming. A technique designed to foster group productivity by encouraging interacting group members to express their ideas in a non-critical fashion.

o Campaign. In advertising, a large number of ads stress the same theme and appear over a specified length of time.

o Chronemics. The study of how people perceive, structure, and use time as communication.

o Code. Set of rules or symbols used to translate a message from one form to another.

o Communication flow. The direction (upward, downward, horizontal) messages travel through the networks in an organization.

o Communication networks. The patterns of communication flow between individuals in the organization. Pre-established patterns dictating who may communicate with whom.

o Controlled media. Those media that the public relations practitioner has actual control over, such as a company newsletter.

o Critical analysis. Form of research that goes beyond description and explanation to argue for changes in communicative practices that are judged to be oppressive, wrong, or otherwise undesirable. 

o Critical listening. Listening that judges the accuracy of the information presented, determines the reasonableness of its conclusions, and evaluates its presenter.

o Cross-cultural communication. Communication of different combinations of people. A cross-cultural communication study might compare and contrast Japanese and American negotiation tactics, for example.

o Decoding. Process of translating a message into the thoughts or feelings that were communicated.

o Democratic leadership style. The leader seeks group member participation in determining group goals and procedures.

o Downward communication. Communication from higher members of the organization (i.e., managers, vice-presidents) to members lower in the organizational hierarchy (subordinates).

o Dyad. A two-person communication system.

o Empathic listening. Listening to understand what another person is thinking and feeling.

o Encoding. The process by which the source expresses thoughts or feelings in words, sounds, and physical expressions, which together make up the actual message that is sent.

o Ethos. The Aristotelian concept is associated with persuasion; the personal character of the speaker.

o Evaluative listening. Listening to judge or analyze information.

o Feedback. Any message that aids a communicator in evaluating the success of previous message(s). The responses of the receiver that shape and alter subsequent messages from the source.

o Function of communication. According to Cicero, to entertain, inform, and persuade: to stimulate was added later.

o Gatekeeper. Any person (or group) who controls what media material eventually reaches the public. / Editor, reporter, news director, or another person who decides what material is printed, broadcast, or otherwise offered to the public. / Individual who controls the flow of information to a group of people. / An individual who is positioned within a communication network to control the messages flowing through communication channels. / A filter between source/receivers in the mechanistic model of communication.

o Glass ceiling. A barrier preventing females from reaching top positions in many organizations.

o Grapevine. An organization’s informal channels of communication, based mainly on friendship or acquaintance, / Grassroots lobbying. Organizing local constituencies to influence government decision-makers.

o Haptics. Tactile, or touch, communication; one of the most basic forms of communication. 

o Horizontal chain of communication. Communication between organizations. members on the same hierarchical level (between two managers or between two subordinates, for example).

o Informal communication systems. Communication links and networks (not determined by the organizational chart) arise through natural human interaction. For example, two workers who might have no formal communication links may be connected in the informal communication system because they both play on the company golf team or eat lunch together.

o Interpersonal communication. An exchange between two or more persons nearby using conversation and gestures. Communication between two people.

o Intrapersonal communication. Communication with oneself, including self-talk, planning, and reflections.

o Kinesics. Sometimes referred to as “body language”; any movement of the face or body that communicates a message.

o K.I.S.S principle. A basic principle of communication advising that messages should be as short and simple as possible (an abbreviation for keeping it short and simple).

o Language. A structured system of signs, sounds, gestures, and marks used and understood to express ideas and feelings among people within a community, nation, geographic area, or cultural tradition.

o Liaison(s). A person who links two groups but is not a member of either group. Individuals who serve as linking pins connecting two or more groups within organizational communication networks. Sometimes referred to as internal boundary spanners.

o Listening. The active process of receiving aural stimuli by hearing, selecting, attending, understanding, evaluating, and remembering.

o Logos. The Aristotelian concept is associated with persuasion; proof or apparent proof provided by the words used in the speech.

o Mainstreaming. Argues that heavy television viewing diminishes differences in perceptions of reality caused by demographic and social factors. The effect of television in stabilizing and homogenizing views within society.

o Mass communication. The process by which a complex organization, with the aid of one or more machines, produces and transmits public messages that are directed at large, heterogeneous, and scattered audiences. Communication to large audiences is mediated by electronic or print media.

o Mass media. The channels of mass communication. Sociologically speaking in modern times the ‘community has been replaced by a ‘mass’, a set of autonomous and disconnected individuals, with little sense of community. The mass media then is that media (radio, television, newspapers, etc) which are targeted at the mass rather than at specific groups or communities. 10

o Mechanistic organization. An organizational structure in which people perform specialized jobs, many rigid rules are imposed, and authority is vested in a few top-ranking officials.

o Message. A stimulus to which meanings are attributed in communication. Set of verbal and/or nonverbal symbols sent to a receiver.

o Metacommunication. The process of communicating about communication.

o Metaphor. A figure of speech in which a word or phrase relates one object or idea to another object or idea that is not commonly linked together.

o Model. A verbal or pictorial description or representation of a process. Models may represent their referents physically, verbally, and/or visually.

o Newsletters. Regularly published internal documents describing information of interest to employees regarding an array of business and non-business issues affecting them.

o Noise. Any internal or external interference with the sending and receiving of messages.

o Nonverbal communication. The transmission of messages without the use of words (e.g., by gestures, the use of space). One of two major communication code systems; sometimes defined as all that language is not; communicated via channels other than words. Any information that is expressed without words.

o Organizational chart. A diagram representing the connections between the various departments within an organization; a graphic representation of the organizational structure, indicating who is to communicate with whom.

o Organizational communication. Communication between and among the individuals and groups which make up an organization. The exchange and interaction of informal and formal messages within networks of interdependent relationships.

o Outsourcing. The practice of eliminating nonessential aspects of business operations by hiring other companies to perform these tasks.

o Paralanguage. Vocal (but nonverbal) dimension of speech; how something is said rather than what is said. The way we vocalize, or say, the words we speak.

o Pathos. The Aristotelian concept is associated with persuasion; the emotive aspects of the speech and the audience.

o Plagiarism. Use of another person’s information, language, or ideas without citing the originator and making it appear that the user is the originator.

o Prejudice. Prejudging others using positive or negative attitudes based on stereotypes rather than information about a specific individual. To make a judgment about an individual or group of individuals based on their social, physical, or cultural characteristics. Such judgments are usually negative, but prejudice can also be exercised to give undue favor and advantage to members of particular groups. Prejudice is often seen as the attitudinal component of discrimination.

o Proxemics. Study of the use of space and the distance between individuals when they are communicating.

o Publicity. Publication of news about an organization or person for which time or space was not purchased.

o Red herring. A fallacy that uses irrelevant information to divert attention away from the real issue.

o Source. The originator of a thought or idea subsequently transmitted to others in the communication process. The originator of a message.

o Spamming. Sending an unsolicited mass e-mail to members of e-mail discussion lists or Usenet newsgroups.

o Speech community. A group of people who share understandings of communication that are not shared by people outside of the group.

o Symbol. Representation of an idea. Type of sign which is arbitrarily agreed upon, and is used to stimulate meaning. That which stands for or represents something else but bears no natural relationship to it. Arbitrary, ambiguous, and abstract representations of other phenomena. Symbols are the basis of language, much nonverbal behavior, and human thought.

o Target audience. In advertising, the segment of the population for whom the product or service has an appeal. The primary group an organization is trying to influence.

o, Technophile. A lover of technology. Likely to be a person who sees the positive benefits deriving from technology and advocating increased use of technology as a solution to economic, social, and political problems within the society.

o Technophobia. The fear of technology.

o Upward communication. Communication from lower members of the organizational hierarchy (subordinates) to members higher in the organization (i.e., managers, vice presidents).

o Verbal communication. One of two major communication code systems; associated with our spoken and written language; typically labeled as “language”. The transmission of messages using words, either written or spoken.

o Vertical chain of communication. Communication between members of different levels of organizational hierarchy; i.e., between managers and subordinates.

o Whistle-blowing. Insiders telling the media what they know about improper practices by others, usually in the same company, with the hope of improving the situation. Calling attention to actions or practices that are inconsistent with established organizational norms or policies.

o Xenophobia. An individual’s irrational and obsessive hatred of people perceived as different and foreign. 

Use this vocabulary to score 8 bands in IELTS writing task 2

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